How Much Is a Wave Worth? Unraveling the Value of Surf Breaks Through Surfonomics
Surfing, a sport deeply rooted in the love of ocean waves, has evolved into a multi-billion-dollar industry. While the environmental and cultural importance of surf breaks is widely acknowledged, their economic value has been difficult to quantify. Enter surfonomics, an innovative approach developed by organizations like Save The Waves Coalition and Surfrider Foundation to measure the financial benefits that surf tourism brings to local communities. In this article, we'll delve into the concept of surfonomics and explore the fascinating question: how much is a wave worth?
Surfonomics applies the principles of natural resource economics to understand the economic value of waves and surfing to coastal communities, as well as the consumer surplus that surf breaks provide to millions of surfers. This methodology allows researchers to quantify the financial benefits of surf tourism, while simultaneously promoting the need for a coastal conservation mindset.
Surfonomics first made waves in 2001 when Chad Nelsen, CEO of Surfrider Foundation, collaborated with Ken Lindeman and Duke University economist Linwood Pendleton to conduct an economic assessment for a condominium project in Rincon, Puerto Rico. Their study revealed the significant revenue generated by visiting surfers, ultimately leading to the cancellation of the construction project and the establishment of a marine reserve.
The Surfonomics Method: Save The Waves Coalition, an international nonprofit organization, has commissioned several surf economic studies since 2008. These studies utilize the direct expenditure method of economic evaluation to estimate the market value of surfing for local economies. Among the surf breaks evaluated are Mundaka (Spain), Mavericks (California), Uluwatu (Bali), Pichilemu (Chile), Huanchaco (Peru), San Miguel (Mexico), Guarda do Embaú (Brazil), and Lobitos (Peru), with a combined annual value of $250 million.
Surfonomics also accounts for non-market value, which represents the intangible benefits that surfing provides to surfers that cannot be measured by direct expenditure methods. One way to estimate non-market value is through the travel cost method (TCM), which calculates the aggregate willingness-to-pay above and beyond what people currently pay to access a surf location. Using TCM, Nelsen estimated the average consumer surplus of surfing at Trestles, California, to be $138 per person per visit.
Surfonomics provides local communities and tourism business operators with valuable insights into tourists' expectations and potential opportunities for enhancing visitors' experiences. By treating waves as sustainable natural assets, surfonomics encourages better decision-making and preservation of the unique environmental, cultural, economic, and community characteristics of surf breaks and their surrounding areas.
So, how much is a wave worth? While the exact value may vary depending on the location and method of estimation, surfonomics provides a crucial tool for understanding the economic significance of surf breaks. By quantifying the financial benefits of surf tourism and promoting coastal conservation, surfonomics helps ensure the sustainability of both the sport and the coastal communities that depend on these precious natural resources.